25
Dec
2009
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Glossary

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E

effective population size
The population size that is relevant for random genetic drift. The actual number of individuals in a population that are reproducing.
electromorph
A variant protein (isozyme or allozyme) detected by its distinct electrophoretic mobility.
electrophoresis
A technique that separates dissolved or colloidal particles subjected to an electrical field according to their mobilities. Electrophoretic mobility depends on the size, three-dimensional geometry, and electrical charge of the particle.
EMBL
European Molecular Biology Laboratories.
endosymbiosis
A mutually beneficial relationship between two organisms in which one, the endosymbiont, lives within the tissues or the cells of the other, the host.
endosymbiotic theory
The proposal that self-replicating cellular organelles, such as the mitochondria and the chloroplasts, were originally free-living organisms that entered into a symbiotic relationship with nucleated cells and subsequently lost their ability to survive independently.
enzyme
A protein or complex of proteins that catalyzes a specific chemical reaction.
eubacteria
Prokaryotes that incorporate muramic acid into their cell walls. All bacteria exclusive of the archaebacteria. One of the three primary lines of descent in the living world.
eukaryote
An organism having a true nucleus and membraneous organelles. One of the three primary lines of descent in the living world.
exon
A DNA segment of a gene, the transcript of which appears in the mature RNA molecule.
exon duplication
The creation of duplicate copies of an exon within a single gene.
exon insertion
The incorporation of one or more exons from one gene into another.
exon shuffling
Strictly, exon duplication and exon insertion. Often used synonymously with exon insertion.
expected heterozygosity
(see gene diversity)