25
Dec
2009
admin

Glossary

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

B

back (backward) mutation
A mutation that reverts a nucleotide site to a previous state.
bacteriophage (abbreviated as phage)
A virus that parasitizes bacteria.
balanced polymorphism
A polymorphism that is stable over time and is maintained by balancing selection.
balancing selection
A selection regime that results in the maintenance of two or more alleles at a locus in a population (e.g., overdominance).
banding
Areas of light and dark staining on chromosomes.
base
(see nucleotide)
Bayesian
Statistical methods using prior probabilities.
biased codon usage
(see unequal codon usage)
BIC
Bayesian Information Criterion.
BLAST
Basic Local Alignment Search Tool.
BLOSUM
BLOcks SUbstitution Matrix.
Bonferroni correction
A correction of the alpha value when multiple tests of the same hypothesis are performed. Corrected alpha = overall alpha/number of tests.
bootstrap
A statistical technique using resampling with replacement.
bottleneck
A severe reduction in population size.
box
A short DNA sequence adjacent to or residing within a gene that performs a regulatory function (e.g., TATA box).
branch
The graphical representation of an evolutionary relationship in a phylogenetic tree.
branch-and-bound
An efficient algorithm for combinatorial optimization problems.